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Anastasiadis A et al. Best practice in the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Ther Adv Urol 2012;4(1):13-32. Abstract

Babjuk M et al. EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: Update 2016. Eur Urol 2017;71(3):447-61. Abstract

Balar A et al. Keynote 057: Phase II trial of pembrolizumab (pembro) for patients (pts) with high-risk (HR) nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) unresponsive to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Genitourinary Cancers Symposium 2019;Abstract 350.

Balar AV et al. Atezolizumab (atezo) in first-line cisplatin-ineligible or platinum-treated locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC): Long-term efficacy from phase 2 study IMvigor210. ASCO 2018;Abstract 4523.

Balar AV et al. Atezolizumab as first-line treatment in cisplatin-ineligible patients with locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma: A single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Lancet 2017;389(10064):67-76. Abstract

Balar A et al. Atezolizumab as 1L therapy in cisplatin-ineligible locally advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma: IMvigor210 cohort 1. ASCO 2016;Abstract LBA4500.

Cumberbatch MGK et al. Epidemiology of bladder cancer: A systematic review and contemporary update of risk factors in 2018. Eur Urol 2018;74(6):784-795. Abstract

Grande E et al. IMvigor130: Efficacy and safety from a phase III study of atezolizumab (atezo) as monotherapy or combined with platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) vs placebo + PBC in previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). ESMO 2019;Abstract LBA14_PR.

Hemdan T et al. 5-year outcome of a randomized prospective study comparing bacillus Calmette-Guérin with epirubicin and interferon-α2b in patients with T1 bladder cancer. J Urol 2014;191(5):1244-9. Abstract

Herr HW et al. BCG-refractory vs BCG-relapsing non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A prospective cohort outcomes study. Urol Oncol 2015;33(3):108.e1-4. Abstract

Hussain MH et al. IMvigor010: Primary analysis from a phase III randomized study of adjuvant atezolizumab (atezo) versus observation (obs) in high-risk muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC). ASCO 2020;Abstract 5000.

Krummel MF et al. Superantigen responses and co-stimulation: CD28 and CTLA-4 have opposing effects on T cell expansion in vitro and in vivo. Int Immunol 1996;8(4):519-23. Abstract

Krummel MF, Allison JP. CD28 and CTLA-4 have opposing effects on the response of T cells to stimulation. J Exp Med 1995;182(2):459-65. Abstract

Loriot Y et al. Erdafitinib in locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. N Engl J Med 2019;381(4):338-48. Abstract

Melero I et al. Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2007;7(2):95-106. Abstract

Petrylak DP et al. EV-201: Results of enfortumab vedotin monotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer previously treated with platinum and immune checkpoint inhibitors. ASCO 2019;Abstract LBA4505.

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Powles T et al. Maintenance avelumab + best supportive care (BSC) versus BSC alone after platinum-based first-line (1L) chemotherapy in advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC): JAVELIN Bladder 100 phase III interim analysis. ASCO 2020;Abstract LBA1.

Rosenberg JE et al. EV-101: A phase I study of single-agent enfortumab vedotin in patients with nectin-4-positive solid tumors, including metastatic urothelial carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2020;38(10):1041-9. Abstract

Rosenberg JE et al. Study EV-103: Preliminary durability results of enfortumab vedotin plus pembrolizumab for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Genitourinary Cancers Symposium 2020;Abstract 441.

Siefker-Radtke AO et al. First results from the primary analysis population of the phase 2 study of erdafitinib (ERDA; JNJ-42756493) in patients (pts) with metastatic or unresectable urothelial carcinoma (mUC) and FGFR alterations (FGFRalt). ASCO 2018;Abstract 4503.

Stadler WM et al. Phase II study of single-agent gemcitabine in previously untreated patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 1997;15(11):3394-8. Abstract

Sternberg CN et al. Preliminary results of M-VAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin) for transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. J Urol 1985;133(3):403-7. Abstract

von der Maase H et al. Gemcitabine and cisplatin versus methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in advanced or metastatic bladder cancer: Results of a large, randomized, multinational, multicenter, phase III study. J Clin Oncol 2000;18(17):3068-77. Abstract

Vuky J et al. Updated efficacy and safety of KEYNOTE-052: A single-arm phase 2 study investigating first-line pembrolizumab (pembro) in cisplatin-ineligible advanced urothelial cancer (UC). ASCO 2018;Abstract 4524.